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HCTR-2011-6: Benchmarks with three compilers on Intel processors (2011)

 

BENCHMARKS WITH THREE COMPILERS ON Intel PROCESSORS (2011)

George Delic

HiPERiSM Consulting, LLC.

 

1.0  CHOICE OF BENCHMARK

1.1 The Stommel Ocean Model

HiPERiSM has used the Stommel Ocean Model (SOM) as a simple case study in training courses across various HPC platforms and it is useful as a test bed for new architectures. It has been described in a previous report (HCTR-2001-3) and for this benchmark the problem size sets the number of interior grid point at N=30,000 for a Cartesian grid of 30,000 x 30,000 with a total memory image in excess of 20 Gbytes. This domain is divided into horizontal slabs with each slab distributed to separate MPI processes. In the hybrid OpenMP+MPI version of SOM used here, each horizontal slab is further subdivided into thread-parallel chunks in an OpenMP work scheduling algorithm. The chunk size differs depending on the value of the product for the number of MPI processes times the number of OpenMP threads, but the parallel work scheduling algorithm remains the same. 

1.2 Hardware test bed

The hardware platform for this benchmark exercise is the 2-processor (2P) Intel W5590 quad core node, as described in Table 1.1 of a preceding report (HCTR-2011-1). Of interest here is to compare the multi-core performance with CPUs on a single mother board sharing a bus architecture. For the same benchmark on an Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) platform see the preceding report HCTR-2011-5.

2.0  COMPILING THE BENCHMARK

To compile the hybrid OpenMP + MPI SOM model three compilers were used in their respective (newest) 2011 releases. These included Absoft (11.1), Intel (12.0) and Portland (11.1) compilers. This report is an update to the preceding report, HCTR-2011-3, which used the previous (2010) releases of these three compilers. All compilations used the highest level of optimizations available for this host with each using double precision arithmetic. However, in this report (as opposed to HCTR-2011-3) automatic parallelism (or concurrency) options were also enabled in addition to the OpenMP directives. The reason for this is that some compilers now enable this option at the highest optimization level (e.g. Absoft 11.1 with -O5). While the effect of this may be only a small incremental performance improvement for this benchmark it equalizes the comparison between compilers on this multi core platform. For all three compilers the MPICH  mpirun command was used with the -all-local switch to contain executions on-node.

3.0  BENCHMARK RESULTS

3.1 Wall clock times

Wall clock times for the Absoft, Intel and Portland compilers are shown in Tables 3.1, 3.2, respectively. The three compilers offer differences in performance times and, in general, the best times are for the Portland compiler, with the exception of 1 and 8 threads when both Absoft and Intel outperform it for 1 MPI process. This is more obvious in Figs. 3.1 and 3.2 which show the ratio of the wall clock times to the corresponding Portland results for the other two compilers.

Table 3.1 . Absoft 11.1 and Intel 12.0 compiler wall clock time in seconds with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The tabular configuration is row-wise for OpenMP thread count and column-wise for MPI process count.

Absoft

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

557.4

354.9

313.4

269.2

265.4

2

283.8

271.8

233

 

 

4

262.5

232.9

 

 

 

6

226.3

 

 

 

 

8

244.4

 

 

 

 

Intel

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

601

370.2

279.8

268

260.1

2

262

264

221

 

 

4

240.4

243.9

 

 

 

6

232.3

 

 

 

 

8

235.1

 

 

 

 

Table 3.2. Portland 11.1 compiler wall clock time in seconds with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The tabular configuration is row-wise for OpenMP thread count and column-wise for MPI process count.

Portland

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

644.5

319.3

269.8

254.8

287.7

2

254.4

219.5

164.6

 

 

4

230.7

165

 

 

 

6

211.4

 

 

 

 

8

224.8

 

 

 

 

Fig 3.1. The ordinate shows the ratio of wall clock time of Absoft 11.1 versus Portland 11.1 compiler with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The horizontal axis is the OpenMP thread count and the legend shows the number of MPI processes. The number of cores utilized is the product of the two values.

Fig 3.2. The ordinate shows the ratio of wall clock time of Intel 12.0 versus Portland 11.1 compiler with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The horizontal axis is the OpenMP thread count and the legend shows the number of MPI processes. The number of cores utilized is the product of the two values.

3.2 Scaling with thread count

Scaling by OpenMP thread count, with a fixed number of MPI processes, for the Absoft 11.1, Intel 12.0 and Portland 11.1 compilers are shown in Tables 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. The three compilers offer reasonable scaling for 1 MPI process, but this declines for more than 1 MPI process. The latter result suggests that this problem size is such that there is insufficient arithmetic work to keep more than 4 cores busy.

Table 3.3. Absoft 11.1 and Intel 12.0 compiler scaling by OpenMP thread count for a fixed number of MPI processes with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The tabular configuration is row-wise for OpenMP thread count and column-wise for MPI process count.

Absoft

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

1

1.57

1.78

2.07

2.10

2

1

1.04

1.22

 

 

4

1

1.13

 

 

 

6

1

 

 

 

 

8

1

 

 

 

 

Intel

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

1

1.62

2.15

2.24

2.31

2

1

0.99

1.19

 

 

4

1

0.99

 

 

 

6

1

 

 

 

 

8

1

 

 

 

 

Table 3.4. Portland 11.1 compiler scaling by OpenMP thread count for a fixed number of MPI processes with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The tabular configuration is row-wise for OpenMP thread count and column-wise for MPI process count.

Portland

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

1

2.02

2.39

2.53

2.24

2

1

1.16

1.55

 

 

4

1

1.40

 

 

 

6

1

 

 

 

 

8

1

 

 

 

 

3.3 Scaling with MPI process count

Scaling by MPI process count, with a fixed number of OpenMP threads, for the Absoft 11.1, Intel 12.0 and Portland 11.1 compilers are shown in Tables 3.5 - 3.6, respectively. The three compilers offer poor scaling when the number of threads is larger than 2, and the likely cause is as described in the previous section..

Table 3.5 . Absoft 11.1 and Intel 12.0 compiler scaling by MPI process count for a fixed number of OpenMP threads with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The tabular configuration is row-wise for OpenMP thread count and column-wise for MPI process count.

Absoft

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

2

1.96

1.31

1.35

 

 

4

2.12

1.52

 

 

 

6

2.46

 

 

 

 

8

2.28

 

 

 

 

Intel

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

2

2.29

1.40

1.27

 

 

4

2.50

1.52

 

 

 

6

2.59

 

 

 

 

8

2.56

 

 

 

 

Table 3.6 . Portland 11.1 compiler scaling by MPI process count for a fixed number of OpenMP threads with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node. The tabular configuration is row-wise for OpenMP thread count and column-wise for MPI process count.

Portland

OMP

 

 

 

 

MPI

1

2

4

6

8

1

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

2

2.53

1.45

1.64

 

 

4

2.79

1.94

 

 

 

6

3.05

 

 

 

 

8

2.87

 

 

 

 

3.4 Results for fixed chunk size and core count

The results above were for multiple combinations of MPI processes and OpenMP threads ranging from 1 to 8. This section shows results selected for combinations of MPI processes and OpenMP threads where the product of their respective numbers is exactly 8, for example, 2 MPI processes and 4 OpenMP threads, or 4 MPI processes and 2 OpenMP threads. The other reason for this selection is that the parallel chunk size per thread is constant for all such combinations, and this equalizes one variable affecting memory usage when comparing the three compilers. For this selection Fig. 3.3 shows the results of wall clock times extracted as the highlighted values along the diagonal from Tables 3.1,3.2, whereas Fig. 3.4 shows the corresponding ratios of these times to the Portland result.

Fig. 3.3. Wall clock time of three compilers with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node in OpenMP+MPI hybrid mode such that the product for the number of MPI processes and OpenMP threads is 8. The horizontal axis shows the number of MPI processes.

Fig 3.4. Ratio of wall clock time of Absoft and Intel compilers to the Portland result with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark on the Intel quad core W5590 2P node in OpenMP+MPI hybrid mode such that the product for the number of MPI processes and OpenMP threads is 8. The horizontal axis shows the number of MPI processes.

4.0 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Exploratory benchmarks comparing three compilers on a simple hybrid model with a regular data structure showed the smallest wall clock times for the Absoft compiler with 1 MPI process and 1 thread. The parallel hybrid MPI+OpenMP SOM model showed the shortest time for the Portland compiler when the MPI process or thread count was between 2 and 6. Absoft and Intel compilers showed similar performance for any number of MPI processes from 1-8 (Fig. 3.4) when parallel chunk sizes were the same. The greatest divergences from the Portland results occur at thread counts of 2 and 4 (Fig. 3.1), for MPI process counts of 2 and 4. Possible causes are cache effects or thread/process data affinity issues. The latter relates to where  data resides relative to the host core for each thread or process. While it is possible to schedule MPI processes to specific (numbered) cores with the mpiexec command in MPI2, no such effort was implemented here, and all scheduling was left to the runtime libraries of the respective compilers and the  operating system.

For scaling with increasing MPI process, or OpenMP thread count, all three compilers showed acceptable results when these counts where less than 4. Outside this range scaling results were poor. This could be an artifact of insufficient arithmetic work inside the corresponding (smaller) parallel chunks since parallel granularity is more refined with increasing core count. This issue is more acute on the Intel node because of the reduced problem size.

5.0 COMPARING AMD AND INTEL PROCESSORS

It is of interest to compare performance of the Intel W5590 quad core processor node against the AMD 6176SE 12 core processor discussed in the preceding report (HCTR-2011-2). In the comparison one consideration is that the total memory available on the Intel quad core node is 24 GB (compared to the AMD node with 120 GB). While there is room for more memory on the Intel node, the limit of 24GB was chosen to maximize Bus speed (see footnote 2 in Table 1.1 of report HCTR-2011-1). For this reason, on the Intel platform, the the problem size is reduced to fit the memory available and therefore and the parallel chunk size is also smaller. Nevertheless the compiler options are unchanged and the total number of cores utilized is limited to 8. Fig. 5.1 shows the ratio of wall clock times for three compilers with the hybrid OpenMP+MPI model utilizing 8 cores on AMD and Intel nodes. There is a wide divergence at 4 MPI processes because of the large speed-up of the Portland compiler on the Intel Nehalem node when compared to the AMD node. For the three compilers the average speed-up is 1.7 (Absoft), 1.6 (Intel), and 2.0 (Portland), respectively, in moving the application (under the same conditions) from the AMD node to the Intel node.

Fig 5.1. Ratio of wall clock time on the AMD 6176SE 12 core 4P node versus the Intel quad core W5590 2P platform for three compilers with problem size N=30,000 in the SOM benchmark. The hybrid OpenMP+MPI hybrid mode is chosen such that the product for the number of MPI processes and OpenMP threads is 8. The horizontal axis shows the number of MPI processes.

6.0 CONCLUSIONS

With 8 cores on the Intel node the scope of this benchmark exploration was considerably more limited compared to the flexibility of the AMD node of the preceding report. Nevertheless these exploratory benchmark measurements confirm the impressive  results that are possible with the Intel Nehalem quad core processor architecture. Specifically, the Absoft compiler at 1 MPI process and 1 thread is the leader in wall clock time. The Portland compiler leads in a range of thread counts of 2 to 6. Scaling results saturate rapidly with increasing core count, suggesting the Intel Nehalem processor is very adept at dealing with higher computational intensity. Computational speedup of this Intel processor over the AMD CPU in the previous report is in the range 1.6 - 2.0. However, actual performance of commodity solutions in real-world applications will vary and results for specific Air Quality Models (AQM) are the subject of subsequent reports.

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